Jute is the natural fibre of country India after cotton. Jute is known as the Golden Fibre of India. It is one of the most affordable natural fibre of odisha. It is the one of the most useful fibre after cotton in india.
Once upon time Odisha state was a leading state in cultivation of jute plants in india. Many farmers of the coastal districts of odisha like Cuttack, Kendrapara, Bhadrak, Balasore, Ganjam, Puri, Khurda, Jagatsinghpur and Jajpur cultivate jute plants in longer quantities.
In Odisha jute plant cultivation is known as “Nalita Chasa”
Importance Of Jute Cultivation In Odisha
Jute cultivation is one of the most important firmings after cotton farming in India. Jute is the second natural fibre after cotton by way of firming and necessity. In Odisha among cash crops fibre crops are specially important.
Odisha state is the fourth largest producer of jute after West Bengal, Bihar and Assam. Odisha climate is also suitable for jute cultivation. Jute Cultivation in odisha primarily confined to the coastal plain and fertile areas of odisha districts.
Total Areas of Jute cultivation In Odisha Year wise
As per the sources, Odisha was decreasing in jute cultivation in the year after 2000. In the year 1970-80 jute cultivation in odisha was very profitable and successful for the farmers.
Some of the senior agricultural experts are of the opinion that lack of government incentives, schemes and poor marketing facilities discourage the farmers of Odisha from cultivating jute crops. This is the reason for decreasing jute Cultivation in odisha.
According to the data from the Department of Agriculture and Farmers Empowerment, jute plant was cultivated in odisha around 20 lakh hectare land between in the year of 1970-1995.
According to Government data of odisha farmers had cultivated jute plants on 7.56 lakh hectare land in 2014-15 financial year and then in 2015-16 financial year the jute plant cultivated on total land of 5.63 hectare.
The downward of the ratios in jute cultivation also continued in 2016-17 financial year. The farmers cultivated jute plants on a total area of 3.88 lakh hectare land.
In 2017-18 financial year there was slight improvement in jute cultivation in odisha according to 2016-17. That year the farmers cultivated jute plants on a total 4.37 lakh hectare of land.
And in the 2018-19 financial year the state Odisha once again came down in cultivation of jute plants. The total area of land cultivated by the farmers is 3.99 lakh hectare.
Climatic & Condition Of Jute Cultivation In Odisha
Jute Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. Almost 85% of the world’s jute cultivation is concentrated in the Ganges Delta. This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India.
Some of the experts said that odisha state has a suitable climate and environment for jute cultivation.
In Odisha paddy crops and jute plants cultivation compete with each other because both require the same climate, time and soil conditions. It requires hot and humid climate and fertile soil which are also eco friendly for jute cultivation in Odisha.
The jute plantation in odisha is done by March and May month and harvesting is done by July to September month in odisha. The jute plant required abundant rainfall and was grown in warm and humid climate conditions.
The suitable climate for growing jute is a warm and wet climate, which is offered by the monsoon climate during the rain season, immediately followed by summer. Temperatures ranging to more than 25 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favourable for successful cultivation of jute.
Jute cultivation is mainly concentrated in the eastern and north eastern India while that of mesta cultivation is spread almost throughout the country. The crop can be grown in low, medium and high land situations with both moisture stress and water stagnating.
Production process of Jute In Odisha
The jute plantation in odisha is done by March and May month and harvesting is done by July to September month in odisha. And the harvest period of the jute plant requires 4 to 6 months after plantation. The best height of jute plant harvesting is 3-4 feet (1-4 metre).
The first step of harvesting the jute plant is to cut it close to the ground level and lay it on the ground for 1 to 2 days for the leaves to fall off. The most useful part of the jute plant is the bast fibre.
The best fibre is separated easily from the plant by the Retting Process. After the retting process the jute plant keeps in the water for tan to brown. After this the jute is kept in the sunlight.
Then the dry of raw jute, The farmer produces this to the jute mill or saler. In mills the jute fibre can be bleached and dyed for making some useful products.
What is Retting Process In Jute Cultivation?
The process in which the embedded fiber is separated from the stems by washing the jute plants in water.
Benefits & Used Of Jute In Odisha
Jute is the versatile natural fibre which is used in various activities like making carpets, ropes, sacking bags, file folders, home decorative products and wall hanging craft etc.
Jute Craft In Odisha
Jute is the golden fibre of odisha. Jutes are off-white to silky brown colour and it is 3-13 feet long. The jute fibres are in huge demand in modern times for its decorative and utility handicraft products.
Odisha state Government support for making jute handicraft products like bags, home decorative products, file fibres and wall hangings etc. Jute Crafts are so attractive and beautiful for decorating a home and apartment. In modern times people are very attracted to natural fibre craft.
Advantages Of Jute Fibre
1.Jute fibre and it’s craft is 100% recyclable and biodegradable.
2.Jute is an environmentally friendly fibre.
3.Jute cultivation needs minimum fertiliser and pesticides compared to cotton cultivation.
4.Jute is the most affordable natural fibre after cotton in terms of global usage, consumption and availability.
5.Jute includes normal insulating and anti static properties as well as having low thermal conductivity and moderate moisture.
6.Jute cultivation makes the land more fertile because after harvesting of the jute plant the leaves and roots of the jute plant stay in the land and enhance soil texture quality.
7.Jute cultivation creates employment by the jute handicraft and jute Mills business.
Key Points About Jute In India
- In the 17th to 20th century the British East India company firstly introduced the jute traders in India.
- In the 20th century Margaret Donnelly I, first set up the jute mill in India.
- In 1973 British East India company exported the first consignment of jute in India.
- In 1869 five mills were established in West Bengal with around 950 looms.
- West Bengal produces more jute like 50% of India’s production.
- In 2014-15 financial year 115 lakh jute bales were produced in india.
The demand for jute and jute made products like jute Crafts, ropes, bags and many other products has gone up in odisha. The demand for jute bags and sacks increased after the ban on polythene and plastic bags. The Odisha State Government aims to provide financial incentives and proper marketing facilities to the farmers for increasing Jute Cultivation.
Agricultural experts also said that the state government should take immediate action to increase jute cultivation and encourage farmers by providing some agricultural schemes.
How many Jute Mills are in Odisha?
There are 4 top Jute Mills are available In Odisha they are; Maa Jageswari Coir (kata) Factory, Belamala Barikpur Bazar Bhadrak, Kalinga Jute Products Private Limited, Rupsa Jute Mill, Konark Jute Mill. And the Konark Jute Mill of odisha is temporarily closed.
Which district of odisha is the largest producer of Jute?
Cuttack & Balasore districts of odisha is the largest producer of Jute.
In which season jute cultivated in odisha?
The jute cultivation strts in odisha in monsoon climate during the rain season, immediately followed by summer. Jute plantation season in odisha between March to May and the harvesting period is between June & July.
What is the rank of odisha in jute cultivation?
Odisha state is the fourth largest producer of jute after West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.
Why jute is called Golden Fibre?
Jute is known as Golden Fibre because of its natural golden or shiney brown colour.
Places in odisha where jute plant is grown?
Farmers of the coastal districts of odisha like Cuttack, Kendrapara, Bhadrak, Balasore, Ganjam, Puri, Khurda, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur and other district like Nayagarh cultivate jute plants in large quantities.
In which area of Balasore district jute is cultivated?
Balasore’s Baliapala Block is the largest producer of jute. Baliapala Block’s Kumbhari, Nathira, Jamakunda, Ghantua, Madhupur and Baliapala village are cultivated jute.