Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

What Is Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

ISRO refers to the Indian Space Research Organisation. It is the national space agency of India and its headquarter is located in Bangalore, Karnataka. It operates under the Department Of Space (DOS). Chairman of ISRO is the executive of DOS and it is directly overseen by the Prime Minister Of India.

It is the Space agency of India for countries space exploration development of Space Technologies and Satellite Programs.

ISRO’s primary objective is to develop space technologies, conducting space research and providing space services for various applications like communications navigation, weather forecasting, remote sensing and scientific exploration. It has achieved numerous milestones and created significant contributions to the field of space exploration.

ISRO was previously known as The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR), which was set up by the Indian Govt. in 1962. In August 1969, INCOSPAR grew and became known as ISROI. in June 1972 the Govt of India constituted the space commission and established the department of space and brought ISRO under DOS in September 1972.

ISRO’s space programmes have played a significant role in the country’s socio economic development of India and also supported both civilian and military in various aspects such as disaster management, navigation, reconnaissance mission and telemedicine. And ISRO’S Spin Off Technologies also have founded many crucial innovations for engineering and medical industries in india.

ISRO Centers

Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC)

VSSC is the lead centre for the development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technologies. VSSC is located at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. An Ammonium Perchlorate Experimental Plant (APEP) is part of VSSC. The space physics laboratory at VSSC carries out research in atmospheric and related space sciences.

VSSC includes the major programmes of launch vehicle projects like Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), Rohini Sounding Rockets, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Air breathing propulsion for advanced reusable launch vehicles and space capsule Recovery Experiments.

ISRO Satellite Center (ISAC)

ISAC is working to develop technology and implementation of satellite systems for scientific, technological and application missions. ISAC is located at Bengaluru, Karnataka.

ISRO satellite integration and test establishment (ISITE) including a comprehensive assembly test and thermal – vacuum chamber (CATVAC) provide necessary support for qualification of subsystems and systems to meet the requirements of the space environment.

ISRO Radar development Unit (ISRAD) at Bengaluru, working under the ISAC carries out research and development in the area of radar systems needed for space programmes like tracking radars, wind profile radar and weather radars needed for meteorological applications.

Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC)

SHARSDSC SHAR, have two launch pads in the main launch centre of ISRO. This centre is located 100 km north of Chennai at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. SDSC SHAR has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellite into low earth orbit, Polar orbit and geostationary transfer orbit.

The launch complexes provide complete support operations. Apart from these it has facilities for launching sounding rockets meant for studying the earth’s atmosphere. In SDSC SHAR some achievements are created like establishment of launch complexes for sounding rockets, SLV-3, ASLV & PSLV launch complex augmented for GSLV.

Liquid Propulsion System Center (LPSC)

Liquid Propulsion System Center (LPSC) is located at Bengaluru, Karnataka. It is the centre of excellence in the area of liquid Propulsion for ISRO’s launch vehicle and spacecraft programmes. These programmes and activities are spread across Valiamala / Thiruvananthapuram, Mahendragiri and Bengaluru.

LPSC Valiamala is the headquarters and the centre is entrusted with the responsibility of research and development of earth storable and cryogenic propulsion and delivers engines, stages associated control systems and components for launch vehicle and spacecraft.

Test facility is located at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu and is responsible for assembly integration and testing and propellent storage and servicing for launch vehicle engines and stages.

The LPSC centre is responsible for satellite propulsion systems integration for GEOSAT & IRS programmes. The centre is also responsible for design and development of mono propellant propulsion systems, system engineering, transducer and spacecraft propellant tanks.

Space Applications Centre (SAC)

Space Applications Center (SAC) is one of the major centres of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and it is located at Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

SAC is a unique centre dealing with a wide variety of disciplines comprising design and development of payloads, societal applications, capacity building and space sciences, thereby creating a synergy of technology, science and applications. It operates and maintains Ahmedabad Earth Station & the Delhi Earth Station.

SAC is a host institution for the training programmes related to satellite communication, satellite meteorology and global change under the centre for space science and technology education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP) affiliated to the UN.

National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC)

NRSC is located at Hyderabad, Telangana. It has been converted into a full-fledged centre of ISRO since September 1, 2008. Earlier NRSC was an autonomous body called National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) under the department of space.

This centre is responsible for remote sensing satellite data acquisition and processing data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management. NRSC also has set up a data reception station in Shadnagar near Hyderabad for acquiring data from the Indian remote sensing satellites as well as others. This centre is also engaged in executing remote sensing application projects in collaboration with the users.

Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)

IIRS is located at Dehradun. It conducts training courses in remote sensing for user agency personnel at different levels of functions under NRSC. It also hosts and supports the centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia.

Currently NRSC is supplying data from cartosat- 1, 2 & 2A, Resource Sat – 1, OceanSat, TES, IRS – ID & IMS – 1 to the users. The users are ever growing and utilised about 40000 data products during 2008-09.

Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC)

RRSSCs support the various remote sensing tasks specific to their regions as well as at the national level. Five RRSSC have been established by DOS at Bengaluru, Kharagpur, Jodhpur, Dehradun and Nagpur.

North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) located at Umiam near Shillong, Meghalaya. It is a joint initiative of DOS & North Eastern Council to provide development support to the north eastern region using space science and technology. At present, NESAC is providing developmental support by understanding specific application projects using remote sensing, GIS, Satellite Communications and Conducting Space Science Research.

Master Control Facility (MCF)

MCF is located in Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh. It monitors and controls all the geostationary satellites of ISRO.

MCF carries out operations related to initial orbit raising of satellites, in-orbit payload testing and on-orbit operations throughout the life of these satellites.

The operations involve continuous tracking, telemetry and commanding, special operations like eclipse management, station keeping manoeuvres and recovery in case of contingencies.

MCF interacts with the user agencies for effective utilisation of the satellite payload and to minimise the service disturbances during special operations.

ISRO Inertial System Unit (IISU)

ISRO’s IISU is located at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. IISU has been the centre of excellence in the area of Inertial systems for launch vehicles & spacecrafts. It carries out research & development in the area of Interior sensors and systems and allied satellite elements. It also facilitates precision fabrication, assembly, clean room and integration and testing.

The IISU has the total capability to design, engineer, develop, quality and deliver inertial systems for the entire Indian space programme.

Laboratory For Electro-Optic Systems (LEOS)

LEOS is located at Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore where the first Indian satellite Aryabhatta was fabricated in the year 1975. LEOS is engaged in the design, development and production of electro-optic sensors and camera optics for satellites and launch vehicles.

LEOS is actively involved in the development of new technologies for present & future satellites. It includes development activities like pixel sensor star tracker, Charger Coupled Device (CCD) based star trackers, fibre optics gyro, optical inter satellite link, high resolution camera optics, optical coatings and MEMS devices like magnetometer, accelerometer etc.

ISRO Telemetry, tracking & Command Network (ISTRAC)

ISTRAC is located at Bengaluru, Karnataka state in India. It has TTC ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Sriharikota, Thiruvananthapuram, Port Blair Island, Brunei, Biak and Mauritius.

ISTRAC is responsible for providing space operation services that include spacecraft control, TTC support services and other related projects and services for the launch vehicle and low earth orbiting spacecraft and deep space missions of ISRO and other space agencies around the world.

The additional responsibilities of ISTRAC is to develop RADAR systems for tracking and atmospheric applications and establishment of ground segment network for Indian Regional Navigation Satellite Systems of ISRO are the additional responsibilities of ISTARAC.

Over the years, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) established a comprehensive network of ground stations to provide telemetry, tracking and command (TTC) support to satellite and launch vehicle missions.

Development & Educational Communication Unit (DECU)

DECU is located at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It is involved in the system definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic research and evaluation of satellite based societal applications.

DECU promotes satellite based communication systems to support development, education and training activities.

DECU, as an independent entity, has a definite role in meeting the goals of ISRO in promoting usage of space technology for the benefit of the common man.

Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)

Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) is located at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It is an autonomous institution supported mainly by the department of space. It is a premier institute engaged in basic research in experimental and theoretical physics, astronomy and astrophysics, earth, planetary and atmospheric sciences.

PRL is involved in conducting extensive academic programs for Doctoral and postDoctoral research and also has an Associateship programme for university teachers. PAL is also entrusted with the management of the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO).

Semi- Conductor Laboratory (SCL)

Semi – Conductor Laboratory (SCL) formerly known as semiConductor complex limited. It is presently a society under the Department of Space (DOS). The main objective of SCL is to undertake, promote, guide and coordinate the R & D in the field of semi – Conductor technology, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) and process technologies relating to semiConductor processing in the existing water fab.

Over the years SCL has developed and supplied a number of key VLSLs, which have been Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for high reliability applications in industrial and space sectors. SCL continues to strive for technological excellence in the field of semi -Conductor fabrication.

Indian Institute of Space Science & Technology (IIST)

Towards capacity building in Human Resource, DOS has established an institute to meet the growing demands of the Indian space programmes named as Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST). Under the Department of Space, the IIST was inaugurated on 14 September, 2007 at Thiruvananthapuram.

The prime objective of IIST is to offer high quality education in space science and technology. This institute offers bachelor’s degree in Space Technology with specialisation in avionics and aerospace engineering as well as integrated master’s degree in applied sciences with special emphasis on space related subjects.

Launch Vehicle Of ISRO

Generally launch vehicles are used to transport and put satellites or spacecraft into space. In India the launch vehicles development programme began in the early 1970s. In India the first experimental satellite launch vehicle was named as SLV- 3. It was developed in 1980. And then in the year 1992 the augmented version of this launch vehicle named ASLV was launched successfully.

After That India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle programmes with the operation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

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