Human Resource Management: Definition, Characteristics, Limitations & Objectives [PDF]

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What Is Human Resource Management?

The management system which is considered as a planned effort made to develop human skill at all levels of the working platform in the organisation is known as Human Resource Management.

In other words Human Resource Management is the process of acquisition, development, motivation, maintenance and managing the human element in an organisation.

It is the aspect of management which deals with the planning, organising, directing and controlling the personnel function of an enterprise. it is the process by which people and organisations are bound together so as to achieve their objective.

HRM is very helpful for an organisation in a fast changing environment, so nowadays it is considered as the central and most important task of the management system.

Characteristic Of Human Resource Management (HRM)

Here some of the most important characteristic of HRM are highlighted below:

Part of management discipline

In the modern era the management system has a special place like other disciplines whereas HRM is an integral part of management discipline. It is a field of study and taught in educational institutions as a discipline.

Comprehensive Function

HRM is a comprehensive function which covers all type of people at all level or department. It means it manages all types of people at the working platform on time. It is basically a method of developing employees.

So that they can get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their best effort to the organisation.

Continuous Process

HRM is considered as a continuous process. It means it should be continuous with each and every movement at all levels so it is known as a never ending exercise for the organisation management system.

Goal Oriented

HRM is concerned with the achievement of organisational objectives by providing tools and techniques for management. It ensures to possess and utilise human resources most efficiently which will immediately help for the achievement of organisational objectives.

Employer Oriented

It is considered as employer oriented as it encourages the employees to work wholeheartedly for the accomplishment of objectives. It also enables us to satisfy the needs and inspiration of employees.

Science as well as Art

HRM is not only considered as science but also as an art. It is also considered because it satisfy the symptoms of both arts and science such as:

  • specialised body of knowledge
  • cause and effect relationship
  • regular practice
  • creativity etc


HRM has become a highly specialised job in modern times. It was considered interdisciplinary because it was the knowledge of various disciplines like economics, psychology and sociology.

Recent origin

HRM was started in the recent part of the 19th century so it is considered as a young discipline in comparison to other areas of management.

Basic of other functional areas

HRM is considered as a basic of all the functional areas of management. It ensures the effectiveness of all the departments and manages all human resources most effectively.

Pervasive Function

HRM is considered as a pervasive function as it is required in all types of organisation at all the levels. It also has equal importance in the government sector as well as the private sector.

Based on Human Relation

HRM is directed for the improvement of human relations in the organisation. It puts emphasis on the solution of personal problems for the achievement of organisational goals and employees personal goals.

Objectives of HRM

To help in the achievement of organisational objective

All the activities of an organisation is Performed by human resources working in the Organisation, So human resource management enables the organisation in achievement of its goals easily.

To efficiently utilise the human resources

The Primary Purpose of HRM is to make Proper & efficient utilisation of human resources working on the organisation. It encourages the employee to do everything for the customer Satisfaction.

To Provide trained & motivated Personnel

HRM also aims at providing stretched & motivated employees to the smooth running of organisation. It also provides a reasonable remuneration on the basis of their contribution to the organisation.

To enhance employee job satisfaction and Self actualisation

It provides a sufficient scope to each & every employee to realise their potential. It also designs various programs in order to enhance the Satisfaction level of the employee by improving their quality of work.

To Communicate personnel policy

The other most important objective of HRM Is to communicate Personnel Policies Plan to all the employees at all levels . It develops a feeling of belongingness among them & encourages better Performance.

To be socially Responsive

The another most important objective Of HRM Is to make employee or an organisation Socially responsive. It means to manage the human resources in a social way so that they Comply with legal Standards & work for the betterment Of society level.

To maintain the quality of work live

Last but not the least, the objective of HRM is to develop & maintain the quality of work life. It makes employment according to personal & social situation because it Is believed that improvement in quality of work lives with Improve organisation performance.

limitation of HRM

Recent origins

HRM is of recent origin so it lacks a universally approaching academic base: It is used differently by different People for the same reason . It as a new name of Personnel management or developed name of traditional managers

lack of for management support

HRM is Implementing through the training and development needs of employees . so it is not Supported by the top management as it needs to Change the attitude to get good results. The passive attitude of top management forces them not to Support the HRM System.

Improper implementation

Generally HRM is implemented through the training of employees. It also considers the need & aspiration of people while framing human resources policy, so it is implemented half heartedly as a management Productivity & profitability approach remain undisturbed.

Inadequate development Programs

HRM requires implementation of Various programs successfully. It requires to create an atmosphere of learning In the organisation In reality Its programs are confirmed to classroom lectures.

Inadequate information

The Success of HRM depends upon the availability of sufficient Information about the employees , So it needs to collect, store and analyse before the implementation of HRM.

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